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    PCB making process – Know PCB made from the beginning

    Are you looking for the Printed Board Circuit (PCB) manufacture processing, then you are in the right place? In this article, I will explain the detail of PCB and its products. As a professional PCB manufacturer, we list the professional steps and knowledge.

    All the essential components of electronics are cornerstones of PCB. This is an unexplained technology used on all computer or electronic devices, from simple devices such as calculators and digital clocks to more complicated equipment like home theatres, computers, TVs, automobiles, etc. Usually, working ability and performance are determined by the PCB quality of any electronic equipment.

    For example, you will have difficulties in correcting mechanical problems and defects if you acquire a gadget with a poorly produced board. You won’t appreciate the equipment you have purchased fully. Alternatively, the final objective should be to invest in a PCB board that has undergone the proper production procedure.

    If the board’s build quality is not taken closely into account, then the PCB production process is affected. These can be early field problems or low-performance board production.
    Fortunately, specific approaches may be used to relieve these expensive and time-consuming contingencies through design actions. So let’s begin with a grasp of the whole manufacturing process for PCBs before starting design.

    The production of a printed circuit board is a complicated process, beginning with a product design and ending with a fully working PCB mount. As a schematic is developed to capture network connectivity, it is designed in PCB, and electronics are arranged. The actual circuitry. The circuit board will be incorporated into the whole system when the components have been soldered and montage tests and verification completed.

    The circuit board includes many complex elements to be accomplished for success, from start to completion. The production of the bare board is one field in this procedure that doesn’t get the respect it deserves. Because of the complicated software instruments employed in its construction, the design of a PCB is quite important. The industry is equally pleased to complete the final product. The production is praised. But the enigmatic process of circuit board production, largely unknown outside of the realm of Design, sits somewhere in the middle.

    As a brand rigid PCB manufacturer, HX Circuit will address the question: what are the PCB manufacturing processes to discover the tenacious beginnings of a raw circuit board and how it is prepared for electrical components to be mounted. Finally, to get to know each other, we will look at what is required for building a high-quality circuit board fab that a contract manufacturer can readily assemble.

    The detail processes of PCB making

    What is the process of manufacturing PCB
    • It might not be helpful to leap into manufacturing straight without knowing how the schematic or idea is related and how this is created. Instead, it might be helpful to establish a few more concepts and relationships before describing PCB manufacturing.
    • PCB development: the PCB development process may be defined as the Design of a circuit board. This usually consists of three phases: Design, production, and testing. And this process is iterative for all but the most straightforward designs to get the most excellent quality design within the period of its creation.
    • PCB production: the production of PCBs in your board design fabrication. The procedure starts with the production of a board and concludes with assembling printed circuit boards (PCBA).
    • PCB testing: PCB testing is the third step of PCB development, commonly referred to as raising, and is carried out after production. The Board’s capacity to execute its desired operational functions is tested during development. Any faults and places in which the Design has to be updated to improve performance are found during this phase, and another cycle to integrate the design modifications is begun.
    • PCB Assembly: The second phase or stage of PCB assemblies or PCBAs is the installation in which the board components through a soldering procedure are affixed to the plain board.
    Manufacturing of the PCB

    The manufacture of PCBs is the process or method that converts a design of a circuit board into a physical structure based on the design package criteria. The following activities or approaches are used to produce this physical manifestation:

    • Desired arrangement on laminates covered with copper
    • Excess copper from inner layers for trace and pad should be removed or grabbed
    • Creation of PCB layer storage with plate materials at high temperatures (heating and pressing).
    • Boiling hole to attach hole, hole pin, and vias
    • Excess copper is grated or removed from the surface layer(s).
    • Pinhole and through troughs
    • Further surface or solder masking protective covering
    • Silkscreen printing reference and indications of polarity, logos, and other surface marks
    • The copper portions of the surface may optionally be finished
    Basic recruiting PCB fabrication

    The construction of a raw board is a method of PCB production that serves as the basis for the last assembly of the printed circuit board.
    A checklist of design details must be fulfilled before the vendor can undertake the work of producing the raw board. Here are some of the components to begin the manufacture and which the board vendors will request data: Details of the circuit board

    The team will establish the physical board’s parameters and configuration before starting a PCB layout with its contractor. This data is required to arrange the Design and choose the PCB manufacturing supplier that best suits the task. Some details are provided:

          ✓ Stacking and settings of the board layer

          ✓ Impedance layers controlled

          ✓ Trace width and distance minimum

          ✓ Through structures and kinds

          ✓ PCB paneling concerns for copper balancing

    Completed PCB Design

    The original Design must be thorough to assure the correctness of the production of PCB. Even a minor modification of the component not synced between the scheme and the layout might lead to a change in footprint and, therefore, poor board construction.

    Some of the design components that must first be checked so that the Design is complete and suitable for manufacturing:
          ✓ Circuitry carried out a comprehensive engineering evaluation

          ✓ Updated and synced schematic and layout databases

          ✓ All parts of the board are installed, and all network connections are routed

          ✓ Completed circuit modeling, integration of signal and power integrity analysis

          ✓ Rules and limitations of PCB design are controlled and mistakes rectified

          ✓ Material charts (BOM) for present and available components are evaluated

          ✓ For error-free assembly, the design rules for production (DFM) are evaluated

          ✓ Full Design Data Manufacture

    A complete and ready-to-construct design generates and submits a comprehensive set of manufacturing and assembly data files to the contractor. The PCB CM uses these files for design approvals and then transfers them to the manufacturing supplier to quote the building of the bare boards. For example, the following data files are:
          ✓ Image files of Gerber or another formatted board layer

          ✓ Drawings for manufacture and assembly

          ✓ Materials Report (BOM)

          ✓ Locations Component XY (pick & place)

          ✓ Locations of test points

          ✓ Netlist

          ✓ Schematic

    The contract manufacturer can order the bare circuit boards needed for the assembly with all checklist items completed and ready for use. In the PCB CM system, the vendor whose skills best correspond to the circuit board’s technical needs is usually listed by recommended fabricators to work with and select. Another element in deciding if the board is a prototype is the manufacturer.

    In this case, the manufacturing supplier must operate a distinct production line outside conventional procedures. To maintain the best quality in prototype construction, they will also need to undertake their design evaluations utilizing the Gerber data from the PCB CM. The next stage is to construct a raw circuit board when the manufacturing supplier is chosen!

    What are the processes of building the bar board for a Pcb fabrication? First, the PCB manufacturing company will start constructing the raw board with all the essential design information and data in hand. Then, various circuit boards, including one-sided boards, high density, multilayer designs, and flex circuits, can be manufactured. For this example, we will consider the basic processes needed to manufacture a typical multilayer circuit board.

    Creating the Circuitry Images

    The initial stage in the manufacture of circuit boards is to transfer the image data of the PCB design circuit from the CM production file to the board. Data often arrives in a file format called Gerber.

    However, it is possible to use more formats and databases. In two separate techniques, picture data are transmitted to the board:

    • Photo tooling: the basic technique of imaging used in manufacturing PCBs as long as circuit boards mass-produce them. The circuitry pictures on films will be made by a precise photoplotter and utilized as a template to print the images onto the board in the production process.
    • Explicit imagery: lasers directly produce circuit board pictures, avoiding the requirement for photography equipment. Explicit imagery: This has advantages over film since it is more accurate, there are no alignment problems, and photo tools do not require regular reconstruction to replace the used films. Instead, each layer must be a separately printed laser, which is a more costly procedure.
    The Layer Circuit Board

    A multilayer circuit board is a combination of several layers of dielectric and metallic materials. It consists of layer couples with an epoxy core and a more often referred to as FR-4 dielectric core material sandwiched between two copper foil layers. FR-4 is the most popular core material used in PCB manufacturing, but alternative dielectric materials are available.

    The minor form of the same core structure used to create a double-sided board will be taken from the multilayer boards and laminated with additional core structures in the board layer stack. Therefore, the breadth, weight, and layer-to-layer alignment of a final quality product must be rigorously regulated for each layer.

    Creating the Inner Layer Circuitry:

    • The initial stage in PCB manufacturing is to print pictures of circuits onto the inner cores:
    • The core copper foil is protected with a photo-resistant layer.
    • The photographers are shown either with ultraviolet light via the picture tool or direct laser imaging.
    • Only regions like pads and traces of copper are exposed to which the photoresist becomes polymerized or hardened by the circuit designs.
    • The still flexible unexposed photoresist is removed from copper chemically.
    • Only those regions are shielded by the polymerized phone. Then, the copper layers of the core are etched off.
    • Only the copper circuit is taken off. The photoresist is removed.

    Upon completion of this procedure, an AOI system (Automated Optical Inspection) will check the layers of the core for flaws. Once every inner layer of the board has through this similar procedure, it is ready for lamination in a whole circuit board.

    The combination of layers

    Layer pairs are layered to produce a “sandwich” for the PCB and thin copper films covering the exterior surfaces on the top and bottom of the board.
    Each pair of layers will have a pre-preg sheet put between them to ease the connection of the layers.
    Prepreg is an epoxy resin impregnated fiberglass substance that melts during heat and pressures. When the prepreg cools, the layer combines.

    During this step, composing the board together takes careful attention to detail to keep the circuitry correctly aligned on various levels. Once the stacking is complete, the sandwiched layers are fused into one circuit board by fusioning the heat and the pressure of the lamination process.

    Drilling the Holes:
    During this step, composing the board together takes careful attention to detail to keep the circuitry correctly aligned on various levels. Once the stacking is complete, the sandwiched layers are fused into one circuit board by fusioning the heat and the pressure of the lamination process.

    The next stage in PCB manufacturing is to drill board troughs for component assembly, thru-holes, and mechanical feature unplated holes.
    Most channels are plated on a circuit board and are generally boiled for placing 0.005″ more significant than the completed hole in the desired size.
    When the structure comprises blind and buried vias or laser-boiled microvias, they are manufactured before board lamination.

    Other process stages can add additional expense to board production but can be necessary for dense electrochemical efficiency and circuitry.

    Creation of the circuit top and bottom

    Now the board is ready to print pictures of its top and bottom circuits. Again, the same photoresist is used as the inner layers to achieve this, but this time, extra copper must be plated on the circuit.

    • On the top and bottom of the board is a sheet of photoresist material fully coated, including boiled troughs.
    • A UV or laser exposes the photoresist; nevertheless, all surface regions of the board, save the circuit boards, are exposed opposite to the inner layers.
    • After chemically cleaning off the unexposed photoresist, the circuit patterns of the bare copper are electroplated with additional copper to increase the weight of the metal.
    • The tin is then placed as a protective coating over the whole copper circuit, and the remaining photoresistor is removed in preparation for graft.
    • The board is grated to remove all copper except for metal circuit regions which are covered by tin.
    • Finally, the tin can be removed, and the coffee pads, traces, and holes may be removed.
    • The board’s circuit is now finished. However, the board is still manufactured in many further phases.

    A prototype is essentially a tiny edition or volumes of products produced before full-scale manufacturing. This provides you an overview of many elements of the goods, wherever possible improvement areas, uniformity of forms and sizes regardless of volume, design mistakes, functioning, etc.

    This is often done in different sectors. In case a rise in demand for an identical product can be made in the future, prototyping must also occur. Before proceeding with high production amounts, even PCB makers build the prototype of the board. 3D printing and modeling have increased in this category. Rapid Prototyping refers to a 3D CAD or additive manufacturing device, circuit board, or part. Thus, this quick prototype PCB is manufactured by 3D printing at a fast rate.

     

     

     

    How do projects work for a rapidly printed circuit board prototype?

    You get a concept of how the result looks when you talk about incorporating a PCB assembly into your electronic or mechanical product or system.

    By 3D printing, you may produce a circuit board prototype that is closest to that final product. Quick prototyping is carried out in several ways, the most popular of which being additive manufacturing. Some alternative approaches are as follows:

    High-speed artistry: it might sound quite similar to traditional artistry, except for speed. Techniques are performed for the molding or casting of a PCB at very high speeds. Two kinds are included:

    • Subtractive: Techniques such as grinding and frying are employed here for the very high-speed carving of the material.
    • Compressive: Various fluid substances are compressed and then chilled to strengthen in board molds at a high temperature.

    Techniques like sintering and molding are employed for this purpose.3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing: The way PCB makers work is entirely innovative and cost-efficient. Though 3D prints are becoming more popular, inkjet prints are sometimes utilized in 2D models to note simply.

    3D printing is recognized to decrease waste of materials and uses just the quantity and material type necessary. It employs the extrusion technique that includes graphene substrates, copper-embedded filaments, and leading gels. This method has no problem with size, shape, and Design complexity. This sector continues to develop, and maybe in the following several years, we may make better progress.

    However, traction and prototype have already been achieved utilizing this technique, even for mission-critical applications in critical industries like aerospace. As the design complexity in these applications is considerable, there can be no deficiencies in the design functionality in subsequent manufacturing phases.

    In 3D printing, a few droplets of a conductive metal like copper are applied to an extruder header. It is connected with the open and fluid cables on the board. The material will be added, and PCB layers will be created, and connections will be made.

    Fast prototyping undoubtedly contributes to cost savings and production losses. You may connect with a reputable player that offers solutions ranging from the ideation stage to integrating the PCB assembly into your system or product.

    If you want to prototype PCBs quickly, manufacture them effectively for your electrical or electromechanical product. They will also support you in selecting material for PCBs in Design, and other technical areas.

    Twisted Traces develops, manufactures, and assembles different PCBs and delivers prototypes based on your needs before you are ready for manufacturing at full scale.

    Step by Step PCB Manufacturing Guide

    Although the entire production procedure is minute, it is very costly. When you first contemplate constructing these boards, first visit the board store or manufacturers and understand the basics. The best thing is to do this the first time. This helps prevent mistakes in the design process. Sadly, most companies outsource these committees to make the learning process impossible. That is why we have prepared an extensive step-by-step tutorial that may help you comprehend the entire process of PCB manufacturing better. Here are the actions to be taken.

    1 . Design

    You must have the correct Design in mind before you begin to build the boards. This acts as the basis for the procedure as a whole. The design process is usually completed by computer software. However, with much of the information required for exterior and interior layers, a trace width calculator might be necessary.

    The manufacturer supports the Design when the Design is accepted for manufacturing. A thorough design review is carried out to ensure that it is compliant with the minimum criteria.

    1. Printing

    A single printer is used to print the board design, called the plotted printer. The printing includes a film showing the layers and the board’s information. Two inks are used within the layer of the board once printing is done. One-color shows a non-conductive portion, whereas the black color shows the circuits and traces of copper. Likewise, this will occur on the external levels, but it will invert the notion. This is done to ensure the minimum criteria are compliant.

    1. Substrate development

    The PCB board starts to develop at this point. The isolating components (glass fiber and epoxy), which in this instance accommodate structural elements, begin to be formed by bringing the components into a half-curing furnace. Copper is pre-assembled on both sides. Etching follows the Design of the PCB from the printed films.

    1. . Inner layer printing

    Interior layers must be printed so that the Design and structure of the body may be laminated. Photo-sensitive films are used to make the layer more challenging when using UV light using high-quality photoreactive components. This is particularly important when the actual print and drawings of the PCB board are aligned. The following is the drilling of the boards to help align the manufacturing process overall.

    1. UV light

    The laminate and the resistor are brought under the UV light when alignment is complete to make it more challenging. The UV light shows the copper regions. The black color or ink on the initial stage helps protect the portions, which are afterward removed from hardness. Finally, the board is washed with an alkaline solution to remove excess photographers.

    1. Remove undesirable copper

    Any superfluous copper should be taken off the PCB board at this point. An alkaline solution can be used. The chemical solution is robust and consumes extra copper on the table.

    1. Inspection

    After the layer is fully clean, an inspection, mainly to ensure alignment, must be carried out to align the previously bored hole’s external and inner layers. An optical punching machine is a tool used to pin through the pins to make sure that the layers are in line. There is also different equipment used to check the PCB board to monitor flaws or problems. Thus, it is easy to detect and correct any problem or mistake after inspection.

    1. Laminated layer

    It is easier to see the board’s form as the layers begin to join. When the lamination process begins, the layers are joined by the metal clamps. First, the epoxy resin, sometimes called the prepreg layer, matches the alignment basin. The next is the substratum layer that connects with the resin Epoxy. After that, there are more layers, such as copper and prepreg resin. Finally, no further copper layer is utilized, and the press plate plays.

    1. Pressing

    A mechanical push is applied to the layers. Pressing is done to secure and position the pins closely. These pins can be removed. However, this depends on the technology used. If done correctly, the board is sent to the press roller, where the pressure and heat are present. The epoxy resin is therefore melted.

    1. Drilling

    At this point, the holes are bound by a computerized drill that helps the interior panels and the substratum to be uncovered. It also removes the additional copper.

    1. Plating

    At this stage, the board is plated easily. To mix with all layers of the board, a chemical solvent is available. Next, the board is thoroughly cleaned using solid chemicals. The solid chemical solvents also protect the display.

    1. External layer picture

    Before photographing the outer surface layer, a similar photo-resistant layer utilized in Stage 3 is applied. Again, UV light is used to make it more challenging to photograph. If a photographer is not desired or needed, it will be purged or taken away.

    1. Plating:

    A thin coating of copper is used to plate the panel further. The board layer is also provided with thin tin protection. To protect the outer copper layer from etching, tin is required.

    1. Etching:

    A solid chemical solvent is employed in other steps to remove the excess copper on the resin layer. The protective coating of the tin protects the copper needed. PCB links are entirely established in this case.

    1. Process of skill screening

    This is an essential step as it depends on what is printed on the board. Finally, the board is sent to the final step when silkscreening is completed.

    1. Completion

    PCB board plate is made with a solderable finish. This usually depends on the Board’s requirements. This is particularly important when the solder bond/quality is enhanced.

    1. Testing:

    The maker and technician must consider testing your PCB board before presuming it is complete. This is important, particularly if the functionality and performance of the board are confirmed.

    Conclusion:

    In this article, I have explained the PCB in detail and also tell the process and facts. The PCB manufacturing process includes several processes, as seen by the preceding information. These procedures can be complex, particularly for the rookie. Therefore it is suggested that the manufacturer or dealers first visit the appropriate information. The good thing is that this guide may be used to understand the procedure and know why this method should be kept in your fingerprint

    If you are looking for a supplier now, HX is a leading rigid PCB manufacturer in this industry. We are always here

    Contact US NOW

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      Tel: 0755-29418801 / Fax:0755-29446393
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      Tel: 0797-3385666
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